04 January 2016

本文是 Writing Academic English-The Longman Academic Writing series, Level4 的 读书笔记。希望能够帮助理解雅思议论文的要求。

The Three Parts of an Essay

The Introductory Paragraph

  • General statements
    • Introduce the general topic of the essay.
    • Capture the reader's interest.
    • Techniques
      • Funnel Introduction
      • Attention-Getting Introduction
        1. Dramatic, Interesting, or Funny Story
        2. Surprising Statistics or Facts
        3. Historical Background
  • The thesis statement
    • States the specific topic.
    • May list subtopics or subdivisions of the main topic or subtopics.
    • May indicate the pattern of organization of this essay.
    • Is normally the last sentence in the introductory paragraph.

Body Paragraphs

The Concluding Paragraph

Here are techniques that you can use to write a memorable conclusion:

  1. Make a prediction.
  2. Suggest results or consequences.
  3. Suggest a solution, make a recommendation, or call for action.
  4. Quote an authority on the topic.

DO NOT introduce any new topics.

Paragraph Structure

  • The topic sentence
    • Position: usually the first sentence, sometimes the last sentence.
    • The two parts: the topic and the controlling idea.

      Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics.

      controlling idea
      two important characteristics
  • Supporting sentences

    First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion.

    For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was made 25 centuries ago.

    Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science.

    The most recent use of gold is in astronauts' suits.

  • The concluding sentences

    Concluding sentences are customary for stand-alone paragraphs. However, paragraphs that are parts of a longer piece of writing usually do not need concluding sentences.

    In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

Supporting Details: Facts, Quotations, and Statistics

It is important to distinguish between facts and opinions.

  • Opinions are subjective, need proof.

    Photographs of ultra thin fashion models send the wrong message to girls and young women.

  • Facts need proof

    Fashion models are unnaturally thin.

  • Specific supporting details (examples, statistics, and quotations) need no proof.

    The average model weighs 25 percent less than the average woman of the same height.

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